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Schizophr Bull. Download references. This study is funded by the University of Turin, Italy. Researchers would like to thank all patients who involved in the study for their valuable contribution. Correspondence to Francesco Oliva. FO and MD contributed equally to conceive and to design the study and to draft the manuscript. MD collected data.
FO performed the statistical analysis.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.
Reprints and Permissions. Search all BMC articles Search. Abstract Background Although previous studies suggest a high frequency of psychotic symptoms in DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder BPD there is currently no consensus on their prevalence and characteristics type, frequency, duration, location etc. Results Quasi-psychotic thought i. Conclusions BPD patients reported less severe psychotic experiences with more frequent quasi-psychotic thought, less frequent true psychotic thought and more severe non-delusional paranoia than SC patients. Open Peer Review reports.
Background According to the first Stern's definition [ 1 ], Borderline Personality Disorder BPD is a nosographic entity on the border between neurosis and psychosis. Methods Sample and procedures The research protocol of the present cross-sectional comparative study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Azienda Sanitaria Locale [local health authority] TO2 Turin, Italy and therefore the study was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration. Results A total of 64 patients gave their informed consent and fulfilled the eligibility criteria; eight Conclusion BPD patients reported less severe psychotic experiences with less frequent true psychotic thought, more frequent quasi-psychotic thought, and more severe non-delusional paranoia than SC patients.
References 1. Google Scholar 2. Google Scholar Article PubMed Google Scholar Article Google Scholar Acknowledgements This study is funded by the University of Turin, Italy.
They are, insofar as they are anything, a constellation of symptoms—a syndrome. They are defined as illnesses because they cause distress to the individual who complains of these symptoms—or, possibly, because they cause distress to other people.
In that sense, they are pathological and worthy of treatment. But are they real? Validity: The validity of a diagnosis addresses the question of whether or not the particular disorder described is real. Is there such a thing as a Major Depression , or a Schizophrenia , or a Borderline? Or are these just terms invented by someone to describe what strikes that person as a commonality between different patients? Take the diagnosis of Borderline. I have heard clinicians speak seriously of a Borderline Borderline.
There was a time some years ago, when some psychiatrists noticed that there were patients who demonstrated certain elements of psychosis, but presented mostly with symptoms associated with neurosis , a less serious category of mental illness. These doctors took the opportunity to invent a new kind of illness: the pseudo-neurotic schizophrenic, or, in the usage of others, the borderline.
This is an example of trying to convince oneself that we know something about a condition if we give it a name. Initially, the term Borderline was used differently by different psychiatrists; but then a consensus formed. This is a summary of the way Borderline is described in the DSM A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image , and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts as indicated by five or more of the following: There is not space here to describe all nine of the behaviors singled out for inclusion but they involve: 1.
Efforts to avoid abandonment 2. Unstable and intense relationships. Unstable self-image 4. Impulsivity that is likely to be self-destructive 5. Recurrent suicidal or self-destructive behaviors. Instability and reactivity of mood. Inappropriate anger 9. Transient paranoid ideation.
Pseudoneurotic schizophrenia as a diagnostic entity has fallen out of clinical use. Described herein is a case that meets the Hoch and Polatin definition of. We describe two cases to emphasize the importance of recognizing We also provide an overview of pseudoneurotic schizophrenia and.
Can the diagnosis be made with only four of these behaviors? Would that be the Borderline Borderline alluded to above? Are some of these behaviors present, at least transiently, in most people? I think so. Speaking of behaviors or feelings or other qualities of mind as if they constitute a thing is called reification. The unconscious is not just an inclination to remember, or not remember, or behave in a certain way, it is treated as an object, something that has an existence with all the features of an object—a place, a shape, a kind of weightiness.
This sort of logical error can lead people to misunderstanding.
Has this happened with the diagnosis of Borderline? Before someone invented this term, A Borderline patient might have been described simply as depressed, or impulsive, or, even, immature. Do some of these symptoms appear together? But they may be a developmental stage in some people rather than a mental condition in its own right. What is also true is that some Borderlines no longer exhibit these behaviors after a time, whether or not they have been in treatment. Is it reasonable to describe it as a particular condition, like schizophrenia is a condition? Yet, this diagnosis has become popular.